Reading and writing difficulties/dyslexia
This is an umbrella term. What unites reading and writing difficulties is that they make it hard to take in written text. This disability can express itself differently in different students, even if they have the same diagnosis.
ADHD, autism and Tourette's syndrome are some of the most common neuropsychiatric conditions. People with these conditions may have difficulties concentrating, memorising information or expressing themselves in speech or in writing. As there are many different neuropsychiatric conditions, students may need very different types of support.
Mental health issues
Mental health issues can be anything from a mental disorder to psychological distress that negatively affects a person's wellbeing and daily life.
There are many kinds of mental disorders: schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder (manic depression), various forms of anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), eating disorders and addiction.
Mental health issues can be a real disability: they can make it difficult to manage time, handle stress or maintain relationships.
A student's vision can be impaired to different degrees, from complete blindness or severe visual impairment to partial loss of vision, tunnel vision or other ailments. When someone has a visual impairment, it is difficult for them to read printed text (even if they are wearing glasses and there is plenty of light). They may also struggle to get around and orientate themselves on sight alone.
Hearing impairment or deafness
Impaired hearing is the most common type of hearing loss. Age-related hearing loss is when someone partially or completely loses their ability to hear over the years. When a person has hearing sensitivity, most noises (even gentle ones) sound loud and jarring to them. Quiet environments then become very important.
A person's ability to move can be impaired in different ways. Sometimes, impaired mobility goes hand in hand with other disabilities. Motor difficulties do not have to limit a person's development and ability to learn. Having a mobility impairment can, however, result in chronic pain or decreased strength and endurance.
There are many more disabilities, including neurological damage, asthma and lung diseases, allergies, digestive disorders, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, epilepsy and narcolepsy.